Concrete shell built using a cable-net and knitted formwork

Popescu M., Rippmann M., Liew A., Van Mele T. and Block P.
DETAIL structure

Knitting instead of 3D printing: A research project by the Block Research Group (BRG) at ETH Zurich shows that knitted textiles are suitable as formwork for complex concrete shells and also reduce material, costs and working hours. KnitCandela is a sinuous concrete shell built on an ultra-lightweight cable-net and knitted formwork, with the knit brought to the site in two suitcases. Built at the Museo Universitario Arte Contemporáneo in Mexico City, the project is an homage to the shell builder Félix Candela (1910-1997). To reuse straight formwork elements, Candela used hyperbolic paraboloid surfaces (or “hypars”). With the same ambition to reduce construction waste, the cable-net and knitted formwork system expands the range of anticlastic geometries that can be built efficiently and economically.


    author  = "Popescu, M. and Rippmann, M. and Liew, A. and Van Mele, T. and Block, P.",
    title   = "Concrete shell built using a cable-net and knitted formwork",
    journal = "DETAIL structure",
    year    = "2019",
    volume  = "1",
    number  = "",
    pages   = "10-11",
    month   = "",
    doi     = "",
    note    = "",

Related publications

There are no items.



ETH Zurich
Institute of Technology in Architecture
Block Research Group
Stefano-Franscini-Platz 1, HIB E 45
8093 Zurich, Switzerland

+41 44 633 38 35  phone
+41 44 633 10 53  fax

Copyright © 2009-2024 Block Research Group, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.